You Have Time to Read

I began reading The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt and was struck by this passage in the prologue.

The President manages to get through at least one book a day even when he is busy. Owen Wister has lent him a book shortly before a full evening’s entertainment at the White House, and been astonished to hear a complete review of it over breakfast. “Somewhere between six one evening and eight-thirty next morning, beside his dressing and his dinner and his guests and his sleep, he had read a volume of three-hundred-and-odd pages, and missed nothing of significance that it contained.” On evenings . . . when he had no official entertaining to do, Roosevelt will read two or three books entire.

The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, Edmund Morris

This was a regular habit, not a one time event. If he can keep such a rigorous pace as the President, couldn’t we manage to read at least 1 book a month without fail?

My Top 10 Books of 2020

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1. Meditations by Marcus Aurelius

This is the personal diary of stoic philosopher and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. He wrote it for himself to remember his principles. It’s been loved for over 1,800 years for good reason.

Quotes:

Since it is possible that you may depart from life this very moment, regulate every act and thought accordingly.

(I printed this onto a 3×5 notecard and kept it on my desk for months.)

The best way of avenging yourself is not to become like the wrong doer.

No longer talk at all about the kind of man that a good man should be, but be such a man.

It is in our power to have no opinion about a thing, and not to be disturbed in our soul; for things themselves have no natural power to form our judgements.

Do you exist then to take pleasure, and not at all for action or exertion? Do you not see the little plants, the little birds, the ants, the spiders, the bees working together to put in order their several parts of the universe? And are you unwilling to do the work of a human being, and do you not make haste to do that which is according to your nature? But it is necessary to take rest also. It is necessary: however, nature has fixed bounds to this too: she has fixed bounds both to eating and drinking, and yet you go beyond these bounds, beyond what is sufficient; yet in your work it is not so, you stop short of what you can do. So you don’t love yourself, for if you did, you would love your nature and her will.

2. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain

I’d never read Mark Twain and had first planned on reading the more popular Huckleberry Finn until I realized this book came first. I was glad I started here. I read Huckleberry Finn later in the year and liked Tom Sawyer more. Twain’s mastery of language and good sense of humor make him delightful to read.

3. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Steven Covey

This book should be required reading for every person. It reminded me of powerful personal relations truths that many of us fail to implement into our lives. If you learned and applied the principles, it would solve 99% of the relationship problems that are in your control. Will definitely read again.

Quotes:

This is actually a paraphrase, and he said it in passing, but it stuck with me. Advice, when relationships are strained, is perceived as judgment.

4. The Pearl by John Steinbeck

This short story about the power of wealth’s influence was the only book I read from my favorite author this year. You can finish in a day, but you’ll probably remember it forever. As always, the language is superb.

Quotes:

As he describes a man diving underwater in search of a pearl:

Now, Kino’s people had sung of everything that happened or existed. They had made songs to the fishes, to the sea in anger and to the sea in calm, to the light and the dark and the sun and the moon, and the songs were all in Kino and in his people—every song that had ever been made, even the ones forgotten. And as he filled his basket the song was in Kino, and the beat of the song was his pounding heart as it ate the oxygen from his held breath, and the melody of the song was the grey-green water and the little scuttling animals and the clouds of fish that flitted by and were gone.

5. 1984 by George Orwell

I’m a sucker for reading influential American literature, and 1984 did not disappoint. I now understand the hype, and it will make you appreciate the quality of dissent in America even if at times it’s grating and unkind.

6. The Ruthless Elimination of Hurry by John Mark Comer

This book will have you re-think your life’s pace and remember again how important peace is for spiritual health. It’s full of considerations that speak to the heart and practical advice.

Quotes:

Hurry is violence on the soul.

7. Black Like Me by John Howard Griffin

John Howard Griffin was a white man in the early 1960s, but he dyed his skin black, lived in the south for a few weeks looking for work, and beautifully yet painfully articulated the change on people’s faces when your skin isn’t so light. He stepped into another world, perilous and uneasy, and risked his safety to write about it. Strongly recommend.

8. The Power Broker by Robert Caro

I finished this massive book this year though I started it last year. If you’re interested in the pursuit of power and how the story of New York City in the 20th century played out through this lens, it’s worth your time (and it’s going to take a lot of it).

I wrote a review of this book here.

9. A Night to Remember by Walter Lord

This book is the only book you need about the sinking of the Titanic. Originally published in 1955, A Night to Remember weaves a story out of eye-witness testimony to the tragic event which no one thought could happen. The story grips me and is so fascinating because of the element of seeming fate involved. If they had turned the ship 15 seconds sooner or later, it wouldn’t have sunk.

10. How to Own Your Own Mind by Napoleon Hill

Known for the more famous Think and Grow Rich, Napoleon Hill organizes a life philosophy in this book based on his interviews with Andrew Carnegie. It’s about living from an obsessional desire and directing all your thinking around that purpose. I found it deeply motivating and inspiring. I listened to it on Audible but will be buying a physical copy to read more closely.

Huckleberry Finn and Peter Pan

This weekend I read the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn for the first time. I also happened to watch the classic Peter Pan movie from Disney for the first time. Both of these works are considered classics in a way, and both brought this same realization to my mind: we must judge works according to the time in which they were created, not according to our own. This takes maturity and discipline.

Here’s what I mean. 

Huckleberry Finn has long been a controversial book for many reasons. In the early criticisms, people thought Twain’s language was vulgar and his humor crude and had little to say about racism and his usage of the n-word. What’s interesting is that I didn’t notice whatever crude language there was (vulgarity has evolved significantly in the past century in America) but I did notice keenly the usage of the n-word and overall racist presumptions of the characters.

When it comes to Peter Pan, the work is surely less controversial, but even so, several things stuck out to me as I watched. 

For one thing, movies and TV shows made for children have changed dramatically over time so that even the most entertainment-forward shows now usually contain some educational elements. The older content didn’t prioritize this as much and tended to be humorous even if rudely. It takes only a few seconds of seeing old cartoons—from Mickey Mouse to Bugs Bunny—to see the overall difference in the nature of the humor. Not only is the older stuff heavily slapstick, it’s usually more verbally harsh and physically violent. No big deal, but I noticed it.

I also noticed how clearly defined the characteristics of the women were. The mother wore a dress and was done up with perfect hair and tweezed eyebrows and had a fair complexion and dainty voice, and the daughter followed the same pattern. This is all fine, though it does create a stereotypical image. What stuck out to me more was that Tinkerbell, who already has a figure that is unrealistic for most women, lands on a mirror in her revealing outfit and looks down to see the reflection of her hips. Her face drops and she places her hands on her hips in disapproval. A short time later, the width of her hips prevents her from escaping through a keyhole.

I’m not criticising either of these works. I’m pointing out that certain elements stuck out to me because my moral sensibilities have been shaped in part by the zeitgeist of our time.

When I read Huckleberry Finn, the temptation is to be sidetracked by the racist language and assumptions and miss the fact that the book is actually deeply anti-racist. When I watch Peter Pan the temptation for me is to be bothered by a whiney and dramatic father figure who gets his way and the razor-sharp definition of womanhood depicted in all the females (including the topless mermaids—yes, that is in Peter Pan). What I might miss is that the dad is supposed to be outrageous to us and that one of the main characters is a girl who is unafraid to pave her own way and set the example for bravery in adventure. 

These things stick out to us because we aren’t from those times. We see them inherently differently, and we have to remember that before we judge them too harshly. 

Reading Books: Why, How, and What

I can’t write a post on why a person should read books without feeling like I’m assuming the role of a teacher and looking down my nose at students. If you’ve been through high school English, I can tell you nothing you don’t know already.

But, with the state of our culture, I can’t help but feel it’s important. Most of us are constantly plugged into the stream of social media, filling our brains with content that is ever shorter and sensationalized. Unless it delivers a punch and delivers it quickly, we scroll right past.

I think people should actively read and complete books as a habit.

Before we go further, I’ll just say there are 4 types of readers:

Type 1 – Those who want to read and do.

Type 2 – Those who want to read and don’t get around to it.

Type 3 – Those who don’t want to read but read anyway because they have to (bored students).

Type 4 – Those who don’t want to read and so don’t do it.

Types of ReadersReadsDoesn’t Read
Wants to ReadType 1Type 2
Doesn’t Want to ReadType 3Type 4

This post is for Type 2.

Why Read Books (13 Reasons)

1. To get more information. — This is blatantly obvious, but I need to cover my grounds. 

We read to get information, whether it be technical manuals, scientific journals, non-fiction business books, or novels of human experiences other than our own. Information can lead to power and wealth and empathy and liberty, and the best information tends to be found in books. It takes considerably more effort to write a book in the first place, and a book being published means it has passed through many checkpoints before it was released into the world. It’s not to say all books are good, because many are terrible, and many posts on social media that were written in 30 seconds are more valuable. But in general, books will contain the better knowledge. 

I always feel the need to increase my basic understanding of the whole world. To not be ignorant of something obvious. To be able to participate in meaningful conversations. To just glimpse a fraction of what has happened on this planet.

There is at this moment knowledge sitting in a book that would change your life, but you have to read it. You can never know exactly which books contain this knowledge, but you can be sure you won’t find it without reading.

But there are several reasons to read that aren’t simply putting more information into your head.

2. To grow in empathy. — I read not just to grow my mind, but my soul. I want to stretch into other perspectives, not just comfort myself in the reinforcement of my own. Reading accesses growth you can’t get through your experiences, and this is not only true of non-fiction. A study showed “people who read more fiction were better at empathy and understanding others.

3. To see beauty. — I used to have a bias against fiction because it wasn’t “real,” or didn’t teach me how to be more productive. What a shame. Beholding beauty is enough, and we know this instinctively in other areas of our lives. We couldn’t imagine putting on the news or podcasts while having a cookout. We play music. There are times to learn, and there are times to feel. (Never mind the fact that feeling is a teacher too, and its lessons are sometimes more profound.)

4. To remember what I already know. — My biggest problem isn’t always what I don’t know, it’s what I don’t apply. There are foundational truths about life, relationships, work, and the human condition that we need to revisit again and again, so sometimes I’ll read a book even if I already have a hunch of its main message. This is why I’m happily reading now for the first time How to Win Friends and Influence People. So far, I can’t say it has taught me something new, but it has reminded me powerfully of simple principles I haven’t considered lately. Its ideas have already worked their way into my life. New is overrated.

5. To fill my mind with substance. — When we don’t give our minds direction, much of what passes through them on a daily basis is useless, even harmful. As gratifying as it is to fret or have imaginary confrontations with people, it’s better to be fascinated with something outside of you. I’m always in search of the next thing to challenge my mind or move my heart, and books are usually the fastest way to find it.

6. For my own thoughts the books inspire. — Sometimes it’s my thoughts, rather than the author’s, that make reading so exciting. Seeing clear thinking on paper inspires me to think more deeply, and I have a sort of dialogue with the author. Even if I disagree, I value the clarity of the disagreement that wouldn’t have come had I not been reading.

7. To develop a love for discipline. — Sometimes, when I’m not in the mood to do it, I read only because I know it will take me where I want to be. Doing a good thing when you don’t want to is the beginning of discipline, and I want to love discipline, not shirk from it. Reading exercises this muscle and conditions the mind to be strong and persistent. How different would our society be if we cared about the shape of our intellects as much as the shape of our bodies?

8. To maintain two important abilities: (1) mental focus and (2) paying attention. — I want to be able to think hard and long without losing my train of thought. Books help this tremendously because I always have to ask myself, “What’s going on here? Why is the author saying this? What’s the point?” I have to recall my main path constantly or I gloss over and waste time. 

As for paying attention, maintaining a long attention span is a constant fight in our culture. Our attention is summoned from the moment we wake until we sleep again. For most of us, our phone (and the information it pipes into our brains) is the first and last thing we touch in our day. This depletes our attention and weakens its span, which is a problem, because the most important things in life demand attention that is full and prolonged.

Every day as we blaze through social media, we condition ourselves to expect a faster payoff for our time. What is this doing to us? How is this affecting our patience to have hard conversations in our relationships, or to work at something for years, or to maintain the silence that is the precondition for spiritual health? What happened to sitting with a book for 2 hours and doing nothing else? (If you’re a parent, I know what happened. Your kids took it.) I want to sit in silence without feeling restless. Books help that.

9. To practice finishing. — Nearly every book I’ve read requires a push to finish. It’s so easy for me to start things, to come out swinging, but to ultimately leave them undone. Reading books helps work against that habit.

10. To find that single chapter, paragraph, or sentence that makes it all worth it. — I have yet to find the book where every single word is inspiring, but there are usually several golden moments.

Two quick examples:

“[Tom] discovered a great law of human action, without knowing it—namely, that in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to get.”

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

“You can make more friends in two months by becoming genuinely interested in other people than you can in two years by trying get other people interested in you.”

How to Win Friends and Influence People

11. To spend time not looking at a screen. — Spending a few hours staring at black ink on paper is more refreshing than ever. Books help me remember that life has more to offer than what comes through pixels.

12. To remember that not everything is fast. — No one, not even the best speed reader in the world, can pick up The Odyssey for the first time, read it all in one hour, and walk away with observations that last a lifetime. Insights are usually slow-cooked. We’re like birds looking for worms to eat right now, but we should be more like farmers planning a harvest months from now. Some days all you can do is till the ground.

13. To see the world without even leaving my couch.

“A reader lives a thousand lives before he dies. The man who never reads lives only one.”

George R. R. Martin

Reading gives us the ability to step into another world. You can sit in silence yet hear a freight train, or be in the brightness of the afternoon sun but feel the horror of a black cavern. Reading is magic. Somehow through it we can taste, touch, smell, and hear. 

I’ll never forget my heart beating in my throat while reading The Grapes of Wrath as the Joad family travels westward through the night and the stars rotate above them. I can hear their struggling model T. I can smell their pioneer coffee. Most importantly, I can feel their desperate poverty. This experience enthralls me. Few things do it like a good story.

How to Read More Books

One hard truth needs to be faced before we get clever with methods: you will always make time for the things you want. Not everyone has the same amount of free time, and sometimes we’re in seasons where we feel we can hardly breathe. But there’s a level of ownership about your usage of time you have to embrace.

1. What if you struggle to finish books? – Start a book club. It doesn’t have to be refined and high-class, you just need 1-3 other people who share your interests, want to have a good conversation, and are motivated to read. Meet once a month, alternate who picks the book, read it over the following month, and come to the next meeting ready to share.

2. What if you can’t afford to buy books all the time? – Who said you have to buy anything? Get a library card and start using it. I’m surprised at how few people frequent their local public library. Even my smaller city has several locations and most of the great classics are accessible at all times for free.

3. What if I truly don’t have time to read? – There’s an amazing hack you should being using immediately: Audible. It’s all the rage right now, and for good reason. Listening to books on Audible is the one thing I’ve done that has increased my overall intake more than anything else. I can listen as I drive, cook, clean, mow, or workout. You can amass an impressive list of completed titles without even thinking about it.

4. Drop the books you hate. – This is hard for me, because I usually want to push through and finish, but if a book comes along that you just can’t stand, drop it and move on to another one.

5. Follow your interests. – This will lead into the next section, but it’s relevant here. I have found that books go by at double speed when I’m enthralled in the subject matter. It makes a huge difference when you actually enjoy what you’re reading and you look forward to the next chance to get back to it. So follow what you love, and get after it.

What to Read

I can’t tell you how many times I’m motivated to read but get stuck trying to figure out what to read. How can you choose when there are so many options?

Fortunately, people have been thinking about this for a long time and compiling lists. No one will read every good book, but it’s a comfort to know many of the greats have risen to the surface.

List Recommendations:

The most important rule is to read what interests you.

Try to keep 2 or 3 books on your nightstand at all times that you are desperate to start reading, and when you reach a lull or want to read more broadly, return to a list.

Final Thought

Take the time to make notes of everything you read. Write down quotes that stick out to you. When you get a thought of your own that really hums in your mind, write about it. Don’t make it feel like some formal book report, but make something that will help you quickly remember the book’s content. I’m bad at this, but trying to be better.


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A Brief Review of “The Power Broker”

Sometime in 2014, I was riding back from lunch with a friend from work and I asked rhetorically, “How does someone build a subway in New York City?” He fired off without hesitation, “There’s a book called The Power Broker that shows you how things like that get done.” I added the book to my list that day, began reading it in August of 2019, and finally finished in September of 2020.

The Power Broker is a book by Robert Caro on the career of Robert Moses, a man who spent his life dreaming and building on a scale so immense it almost can’t be fathomed. He literally shaped New York City, amassing near sovereign power to build through his various roles from the 1920s through the 60s.

By building at that time, when the automobile was taking root in the American imagination and daily life, and by building in that city, which is one of the most difficult places in the world to get something done, Robert Moses influenced the development of all major American cities. Even his worst critic said of him, “In the twentieth century, the influence of Robert Moses on the cities of America was greater than that of any other person.”

Not only is it fascinating to hear the stories of how RM orchestrated his plans and maneuvered his way through press and public and politicians to complete his projects, it’s fascinating to ponder why a person ever becomes so fixated on power in the first place. He was a dreamer whose mind was never satisfied.

What exactly did Robert Moses build? 

Major roads, including:

  • Major Deegan Expressway
  • Van Wyck Expressway
  • Sheridan Expressway
  • Bruckner Expressway
  • Gowanus Expressway
  • Prospect Expressway
  • Whitestone Expressway
  • Clearview Expressway
  • Throgs Neck Expressway
  • Brooklyn-Queens Expressway
  • Nassau Expressway
  • Staten Island Expressway
  • Long Island Expressway
  • Harlem River Drive
  • West Side Highway

Bridges, including:

  • Triborough Bridge (Robert F. Kennedy Bridge)
  • Verrazano Birdge
  • Throgs Neck Bridge
  • Marine Bridge
  • Henry Hudson Bridge
  • Cross Bay Bridge
  • Bronx-Whitestone Bridge

Some of these bridges have towers 70 stories high and used enough cable to wrap around the earth.

As the book states in its introduction:

“When Robert Moses began building playgrounds in New York City, there were 119. When he stopped, there were 777. Under his direction, an army of men that at times during the Depression included 84,000 laborers reshaped every park in the city and then filled the parks with zoos and skating rinks, boathouses and tennis houses, bridle paths and golf courses, 288 tennis courts and 673 baseball diamonds . . . Long strings of barges brought to the city white sand dredged from the ocean floor and the sand was piled on mud flats to create beaches.”

Yes, he made beaches. Not small private beaches, but waterfronts vast enough to accommodate the residents of the most populated city in the nation seeking leisure on the weekend. 

“For the seven years between 1946 and 1953, the seven years of plenty in public construction in the city, seven years marked by the most intensive such construction in its history, no public improvement of any type—not school or sewer, library or pier, hospital or catch basin—was built by any agency, even those which Robert Moses did not directly control, unless Robert Moses approved its design and location.

All this he built, and much more, in the hardest place in the world to get these things done. 

Because RM never held an elected office, he was able to push projects through that modernised the city and made way for future generations, even if it meant doing so at the expense of the living. If he needed to build a highway and destroy a neighborhood and evict 1,500 families, he could do so without losing any voters, because he didn’t need any voters. The book poignantly shows just how severe the cost of RM’s projects were, not just financially (they were that too; on a single bridge alone he unnecessarily paid $40,000,000 in interest), but in terms of human lives. 

“To build his highways, Moses threw out of their homes 250,000 persons—more people than lived in Albany or Chattanooga, or in Spokane, Tacoma, Duluth, Akron, Baton Rouge, Mobile, Nashville, or Sacramento. He tore out the hearts of a score of neighborhoods, communities the size of small cities themselves, communities that had been lively, friendly place to live, the vital parts of the city that made New York a home to its people.” 

The introduction, just as full of nuance and detail as the rest of the book, closes with the question:

“Would New York have been a better place to live if Robert Moses had never built anything? Would it have been a better city if the man who shaped it had never lived? . . . Moses himself, who feels his works will make him immortal, believes he will be justified by history, that his works will endure and be blessed by generations not yet born. Perhaps he is right. It is impossible to say that New York would have been a better city if Robert Moses had never lived. It is possible to say only that it would have been a different city.”

Robert Moses made himself an emperor, and the public at large in America didn’t even know his name. Most still don’t. The works he built were on such a mammoth scale that they can only be compared to eras of public works. Only dynasties were able to accomplish what he did, and even they were not remotely on the same scale.

The book is fascinating, not just because it details stories of the urban history of one my favorite cities, but because it is a grand tour of the life of a person gripped by power. Robert Caro, the author, has made writing about power the theme of his career, and it’s a worthwhile subject. 

As I read, I returned to one question over and over again: Why? What makes a person dream, plan, and amass power so intensely, and do whatever it takes to hold onto it? 

RM would work 18 hours a day, often going for a swim off of Jones Beach at midnight after work, swimming so far out that the aides with him would start to fear the worst. They would sometimes send a swimmer behind him as a precaution, but they couldn’t keep up and he would vanish ahead of them. And he would do this even in his 70s!

As you watch his power accumulate and his grip on it tighten, you see it affect him for the worse. It’s this human part that fascinates me so much. Caro didn’t—likely couldn’t—assess why a person yearns for power so completely. It must be something like worship.

Caro says this of the effect power had on RM:

“In the beginning—and for decades of his career—the power Robert Moses amassed was the servant of his dreams, amassed for their sake, so that his gigantic city-shaping visions could become reality. But power is not an instrument that its possessor can use with impunity. It is a drug that creates in the user a need for larger and larger dosages. And Moses was a user. At first, for a decade or more after his first real sip of power in 1924, he continued to seek it only for the sake of his dreams. But little by little there came a change. Slowly but inexorably, he began to seek power for its own sake. More and more, the criterion by which Moses selected which city-shaping public works would be built came to be not the needs of the city’s people, but the increment of power a project could give him.”

***

Reading this tome was a considerable task in itself,  and I would have never finished without listening on Audible. The print book is 1,162 pages long—dense pages with small type—and the audiobook is over 66 hours. I took several breaks from the book over the months and read others in between. I’m glad I finished.

Writing a book like this is as impressive an accomplishment as constructing a bridge or a tunnel across the East River. In the research phase, Caro conducted over 500 interviews and ended up with a manuscript of 1,050,000 words. As a reference, most non-fiction books published today are about 80,000 words. After his editor rejected this, he spent months cutting it down and ended up with the final 600,000 or so words. It won a Pulitzer Prize and shaped biography as a genre in modern America.

So if you’re ever curious about the history of the infrastructure in the most populated city in America, and if you ever want a book that demands so much of your attention and effort to finish that feels like a project of its own, and if you want to ponder the human experience and wonder what would drive a person to obsess over power—the kind of power that would slam the phone on governors and remain impenetrable even from the efforts of President FDR to dismantle it—then I would heartily recommend The Power Broker.


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